Vacation Rental Trends

As the winter season approaches in Southwest Florida, many local rental managers are preparing for the wave of Snow Birds that visit Bonita Springs, Naples and Marco Island. The time honored tradition of escaping the freezing temperatures has slowly changed in recent years. Many factors have contributed to a trend of shorter vacations geared for a new breed of Snow Birds.

Global Competition

The most notable changes in the vacation rental industry have been from the Internet. The Internet has created a global market for vacation rentals. On the web, guests can choose from millions of rental properties from around the world. The global competition clearly benefits the traveler. For the rental manager, the web means that the competition is only a click away. Prospective guests can quickly compare rates between numerous rental homes and hotels, leading to very competitive prices.

In order to cope with competitive pricing, many resorts and rental managers have unbundled services. By unbundling services, base rental rates appear to be lower, but don’t include the usual services provided like linens and housekeeping. Rental managers have created new profit centers out of providing services that are usually included in the rental rate.

Local Competition

Southwest Florida has seen a glut of rental properties come on the market. This has been attributed to the current slump in real estate sales. Many second home owners have turned to seasonal rentals as a means to offset their expenses. The increase in local rental inventory has resulted in very competitive pricing. This has benefited seasonal renters, with typical rental rates being as low as 25% compared to previous years.

Consumer Changes

Another trend rental managers have seen in recent years is a shift from the typical three month rental to the shorter weekly rental. Shorter rentals have been mostly attributed to the Baby Boomers. Less Americans are retiring at fifty, and “Boomers” are working later into their careers. Today’s snow bird is increasingly working part-time if not full-time. This means the typical seasonal guest will visit Southwest Florida for only a week or even less.

As the competition for seasonal visitors heats up in the vacation rental market, rental managers have chosen to cater to visitors focused on activities like golfing and boating. For an extra fee the rental managers can offer concierge services and transportation to and from the airport. Even budget minded guests are now expecting amenities like broadband internet and heated private pools.

Renee Macdonald, a rental manager with Land and Sea Vacation Rentals, offers guests amenities like golf memberships and beach access. Renee points out that, “Most guest come to Naples and Marco Island for the great golf courses and the pristine beaches.” By transferring the property owner’s golf membership or beach parking pass to the tenant, the rental manager can leverage the rental property’s unique features.

The winter tradition of Snow Birds migrating to Southwest Florida to escape from the cold has become more orientated to working Baby Boomers and visitors looking for plenty of activities. Factors like global competition, a slow down in the real estate market and a shift in the demographics has all contributed to shorter vacations with more activities. The current trend of shorter rentals will continue to increase resulting in a high demand for weekly and weekend holidays. Yet, overall seasonal renters have greatly benefited from the market conditions, with lower rental rates and more amenities.

Direct Home Rentals [] provides rental managers and   vacation  homeowners a listing portal for  holiday  rentals located in Southwest Florida. Florida is a premier vacation destination for travelers from around the world. Southwest Florida has emerged as the choice location for visitors looking for beautiful beaches and great golfing. Direct Home Rentals works to help vacationers locate their ideal rental accommodation.

Ketogenic Diet Plan – The Best Fat Burning Diet

For the best diet to rapidly burn fat using the body’s natural metabolism, consider a ketogenic diet plan. Nutrition has the strongest effect on the body’s production of important hormones, which regulate metabolism and allow the body to burn fat for energy and retain muscle mass, with little need for excessive exercise.

What is a ketogenic diet plan?

Basically, it is a diet that causes the body to enter a state of ketosis. Ketosis is a natural and healthy metabolic state in which the body burns its own stored fat (producing ketones), instead of using glucose (the sugars from carbohydrates found in the Standard American Diet – SAD).

Metabolically speaking, ketogenic foods are very powerful. The amazing benefit is that these foods are also delicious, natural whole foods that are extremely healthy for you.

So what foods are encouraged?

Some of the best-tasting, most fulfilling foods are part of this plan, including lean meats like beef and chicken, healthy sources of protein and high-quality fats like eggs, butter, olive oil, coconut oil and avocado. Also, delicious leafy-green vegetables like kale, chard, and spinach, as well as cruciferous vegetables like broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower.

These foods can be combined with seeds, nuts, sprouts, and a wide range of other amazing foods that lead to incredible health benefits that give your body the protein, healthy fats, and nutrients it needs while providing metabolism-boosting meals for easy cooking at home or on the go.

What foods should be limited?

On a ketogenic diet plan, the main foods to avoid are those high in carbohydrates, sugars, and the wrong types of fats. These foods can be toxic to the body and create excess glucose levels that the body turns into stored fat. These foods increase the level of insulin and blood sugar in the body, and will prevent fat loss even if you are putting a lot of energy into exercise. To avoid these foods, limit your intake of grains, processed foods, vegetable oils (canola, corn, soybean, etc.), milk, margarine, and other high-carbohydrate, high-sugar foods.

But aren’t fats bad for you?

We have been told for decades that calories from fats should be reduced to encourage weight loss, but this is a vast over-simplification (still supported by government and industrial food interests) that is no longer accurate according our modern understanding of human nutrition. The reality is that certain fats are not good for you (those high in omega-6 fatty acids), because your body has a hard time processing them. Other fats, particularly medium chain triglycerides (MCTs), are extremely beneficial for weight loss, brain cell generation, and nutrients. These healthy saturated fats should be increased to give your body the energy it needs while in ketosis, while limiting the detrimental trans-fats found in many processed foods.

What are the benefits of a ketogenic diet plan?

Burn Stored Fat – By cutting out the high levels of carbohydrates in your diet that produce glucose (sugar), a ketogenic diet plan tells your body to burn stored fat by converting this fat into fatty acids and ketone bodies in the liver. These ketone bodies replace the role of glucose that was being filled by carbohydrates in the diet. This leads to a rapid reduction in the amount of fat stored in the body.

Retain Muscle Mass – By including the right fats in your diet, a ketogenic diet plan provides your body with the energy it needs to convert existing fat stores into useful sugars and ketones (through gluconeogenesis), which are an essential source of energy for the brain, muscles, and heart. This has the added benefit of preserving muscle mass, because the healthy fat in the diet gives the body the energy it needs without having to tap into muscle protein to create more sugar. This creates the best of both worlds – burn fat while maintaining muscle mass!

Eliminate Excess Fat – Even better, if your body creates too many ketone bodies by converting existing fat, it will simply eliminate those ketones as a waste product, which means you will basically pee out unwanted body fat!

Reduce Appetite – Lastly, by regulating the powerful metabolic hormones in your body, a ketogenic diet plan will actually reduce your appetite. By lowering your body’s insulin resistance and increasing ketones, you will actually feel less hungry on this diet, which is an amazing advantage over other low-calorie, carbohydrate-rich weight loss diets that come with the expectation of lingering hunger.

Start burning fat today without more exercise! Take control of your metabolism naturally by adopting a ketogenic diet plan. Your body was designed for this style of nutrition. Your metabolic state can be optimized by consuming the (delicious) foods that our genetic forefathers thrived on, and this does not include carbohydrate-rich, processed foods loaded with sugars and bad fats. It involves a luxurious and fulfilling diet based on bountiful foods from paleolithic times, including lean meats, vegetables, nuts and seeds, and healthy fats that your body will thank you for.

The Great IPC Scam

Nobody really thinks that IPC is a scam, but this seemed to be a good topic to write about. Because what happens is this. An email ad comes your way…it says something like Make $3000 in a day… We are trained to automatically think…must be a scam. That is the way we are trained. Scam is the first word that pops into our head. If we stay with the ad, and read on, it is for the purpose to disprove our first assumption that it is a scam. So I am writing this article because many, many people make that assumption.

The first thing many people will do is Google ‘is IPC a scam.’ Did you…is that why you are here? Are you looking for dirt? Well I don’t have anything to offer here, and I, like you, did the exact thing. I could not find anything either. I only found people promoting IPC. So I signed up myself. That said, I still have nothing to even come close to saying that IPC is a scam.

The Webster Dictionary defines scam as : “a fraudulent or deceptive act or operation.”

IPC is neither fraudulent or deceptive. It is exactly what it is…a package product and service, and everyone that buys it knows that. You get exactly what they say you will get. How does that constitute a scam? Leave me a comment and answer that question.

IPC is a S.C.A.M v1.0


Course on

Advertising and



IPC is a S.C.A.M v2.0


Collection of

Advertising and

Marketing tools

I, however, am using version 3.0!

IPC is a S.C.A.M v3.0




Making Money!

What version are you using?

Thanks for reading!

Best Wishes!

How To Raise Credit Score Quickly With 5 Easy Steps

Building a good credit score and maintaining it is, in essence, a long-term process. The best ways to raise credit score expect that you stay financially organized and learn to manage your debts wisely. No doubt, that developing good financial habits consequently helps to raise credit score. But if you’re planning to buy a house in the near future and you discover that you need only a few extra points to get better interest rates, you want to raise credit score ASAP.

You should keep in mind that in the world of credit scores, nothing happens overnight. Even when using the quickest methods to raise credit score, it takes some time for the changes to appear on your credit report. But the sooner you take action, the sooner your score will start to grow. So, here’s what you can do raise your credit score quickly.

1. Get your credit report and credit score.

You have the right to obtain a free copy of your credit report once a year from each of the major consumer reporting agencies (i.e. credit bureaus): Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion.

You should get all three reports, because they may differ a bit. Your credit score is a calculation based on the information on your credit report. Different companies have different formulas for calculating the score, but the credit score most commonly used is FICO score. On their website, you can make a request to get your current score.

This is the first step on your journey to raise credit score. Your next step is to…

2. Examine your credit reports carefully and search for inaccurate information.

The first time you see your credit report, you may be amazed how much information about you it actually contains. Unfortunately, not all of this information is correct. Research has actually shown that 25-50% of credit reports contain errors.

One reason why these errors occur is that you may be mistaken for someone with the same name as you, and this other person’s data ends up in your report. Another, and a much more serious cause of erroneous data is identity theft. So, if you spot outdated, incomplete or totally strange information, the next thing to do is to…

3. Determine the cause of inaccuracies on your credit report.

If you think the credit bureau has you mixed up with someone else, first make sure they have your full name spelled correctly. Also check if your social security number on the credit report is correct. Look at the address, too – if your current address differs from the one on your report, it may cause confusion.

If you do find errors like this, contact the credit bureaus to sort it out immediately. In case you notice strange accounts or payments on your report and you suspect you may be a victim of identity fraud, contact the police, as well as your creditors and credit bureaus.

4. Contact credit bureaus to dispute errors on your report.

Besides the errors in your personal data, your credit report may show late payments that actually were paid on time, closed accounts still listed as open, outstanding debts that you have paid off, and so on. If such mistakes occur, the credit bureaus are obliged to investigate and correct them.

First you have to send them a dispute letter, where you point out the errors you believe your credit report contains. Free samples of dispute letters are available on the Internet. Add copies of relevant documents to support your claim.

Credit bureaus have to investigate the inaccurate information in 30 business days and delete the errors. If the credit bureau can’t verify the negative information within this time, it has to be deleted, too. If your report gets corrected, you have the right to get a free copy of it.

You can also ask the credit bureau to send your corrected report to anyone who has inquired your records in past 6 months. Be sure to make copies of the letters you send to credit bureaus and the ones you receive!

5. Start paying your bills on time and pay off outstanding debt without closing old accounts.

In addition to disputing errors in your report, these two methods can raise credit score most quickly. Late payments that were made years ago don’t affect your credit score as much as the recent ones. Automate your bank payments and get organized, and may raise credit score within a few months.

You also may gain this delightful result if you pay off your outstanding debt. If you decide to pay off your loan, don’t close the account. Here’s the reason behind this advice. Using a lower percentage of total credit available to you raises your score, but if you close a credit account, your total available credit decreases. Hence, if you shut down the account, you may still be close to maxing out your credit – which decreases your score.

If just a few missing credit points hinder you from getting better interest rates, following the tips above may solve your problem relatively quickly. If two or three months still is too long for you to wait, there are other legal options to raise credit score quickly.

How to Prepare Yourself For Learning to Kitesurf

How to Learn to Kitesurf

Kitesurfing looks amazingly difficult, however it is amazingly easy. Yes it helps to surf, and yes it helps to have windsurfed or sailed, but these are not requirements or essentials to learning the sport. Now that we have this in mind, we need to start from a clean slate and remove all our pre-conceived ideas of kitesurfing, because this will only hinder learning to kite.

Step 1

Get practise with fly a kite, even a 1 metre stunt kite will do. Learn how it flys in the sky and feels. Getting the hang of this is essentially to understanding how a kite moves. As you have a bar instead of a wheel to manipulate movement and turn the kite, it takes a little getting used to. You will also notice the different power the kite harnesses when it is in different positions.

Practise flying the kite above your head, to your left, right and directly in front of you. Feel how the kite increases its pull when you speed up the turns. Now try spinning the kite, doing figure or eights and complete squares. All the above practises will be outlined in the manual of the kite.

Step 2

Get practising on your core stability. Whether this is in the gym or in the park, the more core stability you have the easier you will find it to learn.

You can do the plank in your own living room, try balancing on a fit ball, or simply standing on one foot.

Step 3

Get used to being pulled sideways. Whether you buy a skateboard, go wakeboarding or run up and down the corridor sideways, you will have to be used to moving left and right and not forwards and backwards. This common and natural instinct to go forwards in order to keep balance is one of the biggest walls to stopping people doing the difficult task of standing on a board.

Step 4

Get ready to be thrown about. Go to a swimming people and practise throwing yourself in the pool. Throw yourself backwards, upside down and every way you can imagine. Practise doing additional task at the same time like catching something or heading a football or doing a pose as you jump in. Whilst learning to kitesurf you will get thrown about a bit, and if you are not used to this you may be scared off too early.

Step 4

Actually book your lessons and do it. It can take ages to get going if you wait for the perfect time. Many people talk about it for a long time and do a lesson every month. You will never learn to master the sport if this is your attitude. Get stuck in and don’t give up before at least 10 lessons. If you remain relaxed and open to learning you will get the hang of it sooner or later. Once you get past the very basics, it is very easy to progress. So stay committed. Remember, the most committed wins!

7 Ways to Improve Your Bakery With Merchandising

Running a successful bakery operation takes a lot more than just placing your baked goods in baskets, shelving units and wooden racks. A bakery operator must entice customers into their shop by using creative and eye-catching displays, get them to spend more with proper cross-merchandising, and provide the right products and level of service to get them to return again and again. This article will help bakery operators to engage all five senses of their customers resulting in more customers, more impulse sales and more repeat business.

1. Do your research

The best way to serve your customers is to know what they want. You need to communicate. Talk to your customers, take a survey, do an online poll, create a message board on your website or Facebook or Twitter account, or other social media tools. Ask them what they think of your products, what else they would like to see you offer, what you could be doing better, whether or not your staff is providing the best service. It is also important to research your competition so that you are always one step ahead of them. Selling the right mix of products will ensure you keep all your customers happy and coming back from more.

2. Create an eye-catching store-front display

A bakery’s storefront window is the biggest key for drawing customers into the store. The window should feature a truly eye-catching display that can be seen from afar, and from all angles. If necessary, hire a professional merchandiser or window dresser to create something magnificent. Showcase your best-sellers and most visually appealing items. Consider using artificial food props in place of real items to prevent molding or stale items, or if your storefront window is too hot or too cold. Also consider using items typically used for baking such as large sacks of flour, rolling pints, sheaves of wheat and other props, as these will help convey the idea that your bakery makes everything from scratch.

3. Don’t forget the inside

Inside the bakery, use nothing but the freshest ingredients and food items in your displays. Display bakery items such as bagels, baguettes, cookies and dessert bars using unique plates, dishes and rattan baskets set at different heights and depths. This can be achieved using props such as wooden boxes, metal cans, two-, three- or four-tiered plates, or risers. Use fresh fruits, fresh and dried flowers, in addition to ears of wheat and corn to add to your displays. Tilt the racks of your wood displays so that customers get a better view of the breads, pies and other items. Make your products visible are from every angle, and make sure that your displays get changed at least every 10 days.

4. Add bright colors

One of the most important factors in merchandising baked goods is the use of color. Since most breads and pastries tend to be the same shades of beige and brown, it is necessary to infuse more colors. This can be achieved by interspersing your colorful cakes and cookies throughout, as well as selling other items like candies and confectionary. Bowls of fresh fruits and vegetables can also add more vibrancy to your operation.

5. Keep them stocked up

There is nothing more depressing than walking into a bakery with few items in the display case, and one or two lonely buns lying in a bin. Make sure that your bakery is fully stocked at all times, and as you begin to sell of product, consider merging existing products into one or two baskets so that the baskets always look full. Make sure to have all your bestsellers and customer favorites in stock at all times.

6. Have fun with cross-merchandising

Cross-merchandising is a method of merchandising that helps to create impulse and additional sales. Whether your bakery is a sole operation or located in a grocery facility, a lot can be done to merchandise and sell your bakery items with other relevant products. Display specialty breads merchandised with the ingredients that were used to make the bread. Display fresh herbs near your herbed breads. Sell cans of soup next to sourdough loaves, candles and cake lifters near cakes, bottles of olive oil and vinegar next to your focaccia, or smoked salmon and cream cheese near bagels. Coffee is also a great cross-merchandising item for baked goods. The possibilities are endless, and the end result is an increase in sales.

7. Use scent marketing and samples

A bakery has a great advantage over other businesses in that the smell of freshly baked bread or freshly baked cookies is so powerful that it can instantly draw in otherwise unsuspecting customers. Place a fan in your kitchen to blow the scents from your kitchen into your store, keep your front doors open to let the scents waft into the streets, or pump the scent through your exhaust so that the scents can be smelled from miles away.

Give out free samples of your products so that customers have the opportunity to try your delicious goods. It’s a great way to sell off excess products or to showcase new products to your customers.

Mortgage Life Insurance – Is it For You?

One of the most common forms of life insurance is the mortgage life insurance policies. They are used to pay off any home mortgage balance in the event something was to fatally happen to you. But are these policies a good deal? Here’s a look.

The best part of having this type of insurance is that your family can have a paid off home balance if anything were to ever happen to you. The other aspect is that in most cases the cost of the coverage goes down each year as the balance decreases.

Similar to your standard credit life insurance contracts you have for your credit cards; there are several negative aspects to mortgage life as well. In fact, many consumer advocacy groups are advising against purchasing these policies.

The single biggest complaint is that once your home is paid off, you have nothing to show for all the premium payments you made over the years. While that makes sense, one could argue that you did have coverage all those years in the event something did happen.

Studies that have been done over the years have shown that overall, life insurers will only ever pay out 40 cents on the dollar. Looking at that it is easy to understand how big money can be made in selling these contracts.

The ultimate question is whether or not you should purchase a policy? The answer takes a little bit of thought and consideration. Do you currently have life insurance? If so, is the total amount of coverage higher than your mortgage? Could you medically qualify for a standard life policy? If the answers are yes, then perhaps you would be better served by passing on this type of insurance.

Low Glycemic Index Recipes – More Choices Than You Think

The glycemic index is a valuable health and nutrition tool that can be used in a wide-variety of ways. The GI can be used to help one make smarter choices while eating out or even when dining in. For those who are looking to keep their blood sugar levels from spiking, using the index is an absolute must. When eating at home, low glycemic index recipes are a surefire way to make sure that you will avoid the dangers and highs and lows of spiking blood sugar levels. Fortunately, this is quick and simple. In fact, even if you don’t cook, you can incorporate more low GI foods into your diet.

Low Glycemic Index Recipes by Way of Soups and Salads

Even if you don’t know your way around the kitchen, you can always make a salad. Salads are loaded down with healthy and nutritious greens that your body is craving. After eating them for just a few days, you will start to wonder why you haven’t been eating more of these vitamin packed wonders.

Just as salads take full advantage of the GI, the same can be said of soups. There are many soup recipes that are also low glycemic index recipes. Soups are an easy and potentially tasty, way to bring additional low GI foods into your every day food experience. Soups rich in beans and vegetables are a way to significantly increase the amount of food that you eat that is low on the GI. Consider adding ample amounts of spices, such as red pepper, sage and other nutrient rich spices to increase both the favor of your meal and its nutritional value.

Cookbooks are obviously the place to go when looking for low glycemic index recipes, but some cookbooks will be much better than others. Vegetarian and vegan cookbooks are more likely to have good low GI recipes than most other cookbooks. In particular, vegan cookbooks, due to the fact that so much of a vegan diet revolves around fruits, vegetables and nuts, are a fantastic idea for anyone seeking low glycemic index recipes.

The Power of Cookbooks

Vegetarian and vegan cookbooks often are loaded with recipes that use good, healthy fats. These are the fats you will find in coconuts, avocados and nuts. By properly utilizing these healthy fats you will be able to keep many of your food cravings as bay and have a nutritious and healthy meal at the same time. When looking for low glycemic index recipes, take full advantage of what these cookbooks have to offer.

Soups and salads are just two of the many ways that one can eat more food, which is low on the index. Vegan and vegetarian cookbooks are full of low GI recipes that will truly help anyone who is looking to avoid high GI foods. With a little time, patience and research, it is definitely possible to eat a diet richer in low GI foods. Low glycemic index recipes are out there… and there are recipes for all tastes and all types of dieters!

How to Make Hardcover Photo Books From Snapfish is a well known online retailer of photo based gifts and other products and services. Despite offering a plethora of photo printed products, like calendars, traditional prints, and even drink coasters, Snapfish seems to be best well known for their exquisite photo books. Photo books are created by the user, who uploads a set of their own digital photographs from their hard drive to the Snapfish website, and uses their robust editing software to assemble them into a bound hardcover book with text, backgrounds, borders, and other fun and appealing features. Photo book prices start at a low $19.99 for an 8×11 hardcover photo book with a linen cover, and 20 full color pages.

Before you can start designing a photo book with Snapfish you must first register on the website. To create a photobook, navigate to that section of the website and select the size you want to go with. For hardcover options they offer 8×8, 8×11, and 12×12. There are two different options for the 8×11 available – Leather or Linen covers with a “window” (showing a portion of the image on your first page), or a printed cover or jacket. You make these selections before entering the designing software, but you can change it later if you desire.

Before you start designing your photobook, you should first select and upload all of the images you want to use in that photo book. Once all of your images are uploaded, Snapfish offers to automatically design and fill in the photobook for you. While this makes your job super simple, it may not do things exactly as you would. Images are filled in in the order they’re uploaded, and page layouts are somewhat random. The design system will lay out your images in plenty of different ways. Sometimes it will put two images on a page with a text area, or one full page image with no text, or sometimes three images on one page and a page of text on the next. This is a great option for people who don’t want to spend a ton of time working on the book, but takes some of the personal touch out.

If you really want to dive in and make the best photo book you can, then you’re in luck – Snapfish’s design system is extremely robust. If you try to insert an image that is low resolution and won’t print well, you will be warned. You can also do photo adjustments from the design area, like resizing and cropping, flipping, rotating, red eye removal, color enhancement, brightness and contrast, and even color conversion (black and white, sepia, colorize).

You can also select page backgrounds and designs. You choose a “theme” before entering the designing area, but you can change every page individually if you prefer it that way. Just select the “Backgrounds” tab and drag and drop what you want onto the page. The “Layouts” tab is where you can choose how many images you want per page, if (and where) you want to place text, and the size and placement of images. There are a total of 78 different layouts to choose from, as well as “magic” layouts that allow you a much more customized layout experience. You can even add borders to your images here, but that option isn’t necessarily compatible with all layouts.

The hardest part of designing photo books is keeping track of which images you have and haven’t used, so that you don’t end up with duplicates, or leave some out. Snapfish makes your image management easy, however, by placing green checks next to images you’ve used. The full list of your images (and these checks) is found on the right hand side of the design area. If you decide you want to remove an image from use, or from your list, you can do that in this area as well.

Once you’ve completed your photobook, you can view a 3D rendering of what it should look like by clicking “Preview” at the bottom of the design area page. This is a navigable preview that lets you view pages in order, like you would if you were looking at the real book. makes some of the best photo books on the web, and hopefully with this article you are now better prepared to navigate their website, and design the best photobook possible.

History of Travel & Tourism

2000 years Before Christ, in India and Mesopotamia

Travel for trade was an important feature since the beginning of civilisation. The port at Lothal was an important centre of trade between the Indus valley civilisation and the Sumerian civilisation.

600 BC and thereafter

The earliest form of leisure tourism can be traced as far back as the Babylonian and Egyptian empires. A museum of historic antiquities was open to the public in Babylon. The Egyptians held many religious festivals that attracted the devout and many people who thronged to cities to see famous works of arts and buildings.

In India, as elsewhere, kings travelled for empire building. The Brahmins and the common people travelled for religious purposes. Thousands of Brahmins and the common folk thronged Sarnath and Sravasti to be greeted by the inscrutable smile of the Enlightened One- the Buddha.

500 BC, the Greek civilisation

The Greek tourists travelled to sites of healing gods. The Greeks also enjoyed their religious festivals that increasingly became a pursuit of pleasure, and in particular, sport. Athens had become an important site for travellers visiting the major sights such as the Parthenon. Inns were established in large towns and seaports to provide for travellers’ needs. Courtesans were the principal entertainment offered.


This era also saw the birth of travel writing. Herodotus was the worlds’ first travel writer. Guidebooks also made their appearance in the fourth century covering destinations such as Athens, Sparta and Troy. Advertisements in the way of signs directing people to inns are also known in this period.

The Roman Empire

With no foreign borders between England and Syria, and with safe seas from piracy due to Roman patrols, the conditions favouring travel had arrived. First class roads coupled with staging inns (precursors of modern motels) promoted the growth of travel. Romans travelled to Sicily, Greece, Rhodes, Troy and Egypt. From 300 AD travel to the Holy Land also became very popular. The Romans introduced their guidebooks (itineraria), listing hotels with symbols to identify quality.

Second homes were built by the rich near Rome, occupied primarily during springtime social season. The most fashionable resorts were found around Bay of Naples. Naples attracted the retired and the intellectuals, Cumae attracted the fashionable while Baiae attracted the down market tourist, becoming noted for its rowdiness, drunkenness and all- night singing.

Travel and Tourism were to never attain a similar status until the modern times.

In the Middle Ages

Travel became difficult and dangerous as people travelled for business or for a sense of obligation and duty.

Adventurers sought fame and fortune through travel. The Europeans tried to discover a sea route to India for trade purposes and in this fashion discovered America and explored parts of Africa. Strolling players and minstrels made their living by performing as they travelled. Missionaries, saints, etc. travelled to spread the sacred word.

Leisure travel in India was introduced by the Mughals. The Mughal kings built luxurious palaces and enchanting gardens at places of natural and scenic beauty (for example Jehangir travelled to Kashmir drawn by its beauty.

Travel for empire building and pilgrimage was a regular feature.

The Grand Tour

From the early seventeenth century, a new form of tourism was developed as a direct outcome of the Renaissance. Under the reign of Elizabeth 1, young men seeking positions at court were encouraged to travel to continent to finish their education. Later, it became customary for education of gentleman to be completed by a ‘Grand Tour’ accompanied by a tutor and lasting for three or more years. While ostensibly educational, the pleasure seeking men travelled to enjoy life and culture of Paris, Venice or Florence. By the end of eighteenth century, the custom had become institutionalised in the gentry. Gradually pleasure travel displaced educational travel. The advent of Napoleonic wars inhibited travel for around 30 years and led to the decline of the custom of the Grand Tour.

The development of the spas

The spas grew in popularity in the seventeenth century in Britain and a little later in the European Continent as awareness about the therapeutic qualities of mineral water increased. Taking the cure in the spa rapidly acquired the nature of a status symbol. The resorts changed in character as pleasure became the motivation of visits. They became an important centre of social life for the high society.

In the nineteenth century they were gradually replaced by the seaside resort.

The sun, sand and sea resorts

The sea water became associated with health benefits. The earliest visitors therefore drank it and did not bathe in it. By the early eighteenth century, small fishing resorts sprung up in England for visitors who drank and immersed themselves in sea water. With the overcrowding of inland spas, the new sea side resorts grew in popularity. The introduction of steamboat services in 19th century introduced more resorts in the circuit. The seaside resort gradually became a social meeting point

 Role of the industrial revolution in promoting travel in the west

 The rapid urbanisation due to industrialisation led to mass immigration in cities. These people were lured into travel to escape their environment to places of natural beauty, often to the countryside they had come from change of routine from a physically and psychologically stressful jobs to a leisurely pace in countryside.

Highlights of travel in the nineteenth century 

·        Advent of railway initially catalysed business travel and later leisure travel. Gradually special trains were chartered to only take leisure travel to their destinations.

·        Package tours organised by entrepreneurs such as Thomas Cook.

·        The European countries indulged in a lot of business travel often to their colonies to buy raw material and sell finished goods.

·        The invention of photography acted as a status-enhancing tool and promoted overseas travel.

·        The formation of first hotel chains; pioneered by the railway companies who established great railway terminus hotels.

·        Seaside resorts began to develop different images as for day-trippers, elite, for gambling.

·        Other types of destinations-ski resorts, hill stations, mountaineering spots etc.

·        The technological development in steamships promoted travel between North America and Europe.

·        The Suez Canal opened direct sea routes to India and the Far East.

·        The cult of the guidebook followed the development of photography.



Tourism in the Twentieth Century


The First World War gave first hand experience of countries and aroused a sense of curiosity about international travel among less well off sector for the first time. The large scale of migration to the US meant a lot of travel across the Atlantic. Private motoring began to encourage domestic travel in Europe and the west.  The sea side resort became annual family holiday destination in Britain and increased in popularity in other countries of the west. Hotels proliferated in these destinations.

The birth of air travel and after

The wars increased interest in international travel. This interest was given the shape of mass tourism by the aviation industry. The surplus of aircraft and growth of private airlines aided the expansion of air travel. The aircraft had become comfortable, faster and steadily cheaper for overseas travel. With the introduction of Boeing 707 jet in 1958, the age of air travel for the masses had arrived. The beginning of chartered flights boosted the package tour market and led to the establishment of organised mass tourism. The Boeing 747, a 400 seat craft, brought the cost of travel down sharply. The seaside resorts in the Mediterranean, North Africa and the Caribbean were the initial hot spots of mass tourism.

A corresponding growth in hotel industry led to the establishment of world-wide chains. Tourism also began to diversify as people began to flock alternative destinations in the 70s. Nepal and India received a throng of tourists lured by Hare Krishna movement and transcendental meditation. The beginning of individual travel in a significant volume only occurred in the 80s. Air travel also led to a continuous growth in business travel especially with the emergence of the MNCs.